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1. Three spades. With 40 on, a direct jump-raise indicates a hand of opening-bid proportions and a fit for partner's suit. The purpose of the jump-raise is to alert partner to the possibility of a slam. Partner does not have to bid again. He continues forward with values that justify exploring for slam opposite responder's announced strength.
2. Three hearts. The jump-shift guarantees 17 or more points and forces opener to bid again (with a 40 part score, partner would not have to answer a two-heart response). Opener rebids naturally, depending both on distribution and high-card strength. A three-spade bid by opener would show a rebiddable suit, while three no-trump would indicate a balanced hand and lack of interest in slam.
3. Two clubs. Because a contract that would yield game has not yet been reached, opener must bid again. It's best to show the club suit first, planning to show your good spade support next in case opener is interested in slam. If the part score were 60, clubs would not be mentioned; a direct raise to three spades would be the better bid.
4. Two spades. You have good spade support and are in the range for a single raise, so that is the best action. Two hearts (not forcing) would be an inaccurate response, because that bid would normally show a good heart suit and lack of support for spades. If partner bids again over two spades, trying for slam, you can then mention your heart suit, at the same time indicating slam interest.
5. Three no-trump. Since two no-trump would be a game-going bid, three no-trump is a slam try. However, the opening bidder is not required to bid again. If he has a minimum opening suitable for no-trump play, he can pass.
The three-no-trump response with a part score of 40 has the same meaning as the same bid without a part score. It indicates no-trump distribution, 16 or 17 high-card points, and stoppers in the unbid suits.
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